I see where you are coming from, but I don’t believe that Anakin’s response would have been different for Padme. Despite his anger, I think Anakin would be able see the helplessness of the situation and make the same choice. If anything, he may relent more quickly than he did with Ashoka.
Afterwards, however, I think his approach would change. No matter the circumstance, I don’t see him abandoning his hunt for Bane. He would want blood.
While I agree that Anakin’s feelings for Padme trumps all else, I think you’re undervaluing his relationship with Ahsoka. As Filoni has stated, she is like a kid sister to him.
In light of this analogy, I wonder about Ahsoka’s fate. If Anakin was to lose her, it would be another devastating blow. Her death would give another layer of perspective to his anxiety in Episode 3.
In general, I wouldn’t worry about seeing Anakin’s darkside in the series. In the Episode 3 webdocs below, Lucas states that Anakin begins to enjoy killing during the Clone Wars. I expect Anakin to become progressively aggressive as the series moves closer to the start of ROTS.